While the world traveled to Asia and the States for pampering and well-being, European spas, once in the forefront of medical and wellness resorts, fell out of favor and out of fashion. Their old-style charm looked shabby, and they were being kept alive by the infirm and elderly on health insurance packages. Then a few years ago something stirred in the surrounding mineral-rich waters and muds that were still in situ, and the resorts were given the facelift they required for the 21st century. Add to this all the best new research and improved techniques, and the guests began to return. While Switzerland was always the attraction, Italy became the more adventurous, showcasing and embracing the new. The country now is awash with state-of-the-art spas, three of which are featured here.